Cell Biology


Veterinary Research







Immunology is the study of cells of the immune system, their development and functions, and how they cooperate to protect us from foreign invaders and cancer. Each type of leukocyte has its own set of surface receptors and specialized functions. By genetic recombination T and B lymphocytes develop unique receptors that respond to specific antigens and distinguish self from non-self. Immune cells use cell-cell interactions, antigen capture, processing, and presentation, and soluble mediators to produce inflammatory reactions and antigen-specific responses. Mature B cells produce antibodies, while T cells are responsible for cellular responses. T and B cells also combine to generate immunologic memory which allows the immune system to respond more vigorously to subsequent exposures to the same antigens.

It is notable that the study of immunology led to the generation of antisera and monoclonal antibodies. These useful tools in turn led to the development of techniques such as flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation which are widely used in all other fields of biomedical research.

Bethyl’s immunology portfolio contains more than 4,600 antibodies. These antibodies have been manufactured by Bethyl. A rigorous validation process ensures that the antibody will work in the applications outlined on the datasheet. These applications include: Western blot, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, proximity ligation assay, and ChIP. A Bethyl antibody is first validated for specificity in immunoprecipitation and/or western blot and if it passes the team will validate the antibody for additional applications.

All products are backed with a 100% guarantee to work in your assay, when used in under the same conditions outlined on the product datasheet, which provides confident, reliable results.

Bethyl sells a wide variety of antibodies for studying immunology. Recent publications using our antibodies for immunology research include:

  • Using proteomics to identify novel human proteins that interact with hepatitis C proteins during infection and lead to better viral replication and immune evasion
  • How human cytomegalovirus circumvents the innate immune system through a direction interaction with PML nuclear bodies
  • Understanding how Kaposi’s Sarcoma virus modifies the host NF-kB pathway to enable a latent infection and avoid the immune response
  • Exploring how infection with HIV can increase the risk of reactivation of latent viral particles during infection via IL-6 expression and JAK/STAT signaling
  • Examining how an Epstein-Barr virus activates the NF-kB pathway and mediates B-cell transformation and presents possible therapeutic targets to infections


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