TUNEL and TdT kits
Apoptosis is characterized by a number of intracellular phenomena such as membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and nuclear DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation is considered to be irreversible, and a classical indicator of apoptosis. During apoptosis, DNA is cleaved between the nucleosomes into 180-200 bp fragments. This DNA fragmentation provides the basis for several assays used to detect apoptosis in situ. This cleavage generates free 3’-hydroxyl residues that can be utilized by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) in end-labeling reactions (TUNEL). Incorporation of biotinylated nucleotides into the DNA by TdT allows detection with streptavidin-linked conjugates
TACS XL® In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kits
- More robust TUNEL approach for the in situ detection of apoptosis than other methods.
- Based on incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) at the 3’ OH ends of the DNA fragments
- The detection system utilizes a biotin conjugated anti-BrdU antibody and streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase.
- Three kit formats are available: TACS•XL® DAB (supplied with DAB and Methyl Green counterstain), TACS•XL® Blue Label (with TACS Blue Label™ and Nuclear Fast Red counterstain), and TACS•XL® Basic (for routine labeling, and ideal for researchers whose labs are equipped for standard immunohistochemical procedures involving horseradish-peroxidase).
- Replinisher kit provides only the reagents that are most rapidly exhausted from the complete kits
TACS® TdT In Situ Apoptosis Detection Kits
- Utilize Trevigen’s unique cation optimization system to enhance labeling within particular tissues.
- Employ a proprietary labeling buffer that contains no toxic components (e.g. sodium cacodylate).
- A highly purified form of the TdT enzyme is included for the enzymatic incorporation of biotinylated nucleotides.
- Biotin labeling is detected using streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase, and colorimetric substrates diaminobenzidine (DAB), or TACS Blue Label™.
- For fluorescent detection, a fluorescein conjugate of streptavidin is used and visualized by epifluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry(see FlowTACSTM Kit)
- Available also TACS® Specialty Kits (Tumor #4815-30-K, Neuro #4823-30K, Vaso #4826-30-K, Cardio #4827-30-K, Derma #4829-30-K) and ApoMark Apoptosis Kit (#X2044K1, #X2044K2)